Useful Expressions

某ゼミの参加者が、ゼミで読んでいるテキストから「論文に使えそうな表現」として抽出したもののうち、特に汎用性があると作成者が勝手に判断したものを選び、項目別にまとめたものです。
このゼミの参加者以外の人でも英語で論文を書こうという人には参考になるかもしれません。
日本語訳や解釈が違っている箇所があるかもしれませんので、その場合は指摘して頂ければ他のゼミの方と協議の上、訂正しますのでぜひメールを下さい。
また、このページに紹介されている表現を使用し、何らかの不利益を被った場合でも、当サイト管理者は一切責任を負いません。自己の責任において使用してください。

 実際にテキストに出ていた文とともに載せています。「使えそうな表現」として発表した人(苗字をローマ字で書いた時の始めの2文字を表示)、日付けまで書いてあります。
なお、行数表示における「-(マイナス)」は、下から数えた時の行数を示します。(例:-9 下から9行目)また、「メモ」には発表レジュメに記載されていた発表者による説明をそのまま載せました。

 
目次

@自分が以前に述べたこと/これから述べることに言及する

A先行研究に言及する、まとめる

B婉曲的(断定を避けて、譲歩しながら)に論を述べる

C重要な点や盲点を強調したい

D問題の提示

Eデータや数字に言及する

Fそのほか、役に立ちそうな表現

G使えそうな動詞、熟語表現

 

《検索のヒント》

使いたい語句は大体決まっているのに、上記カテゴリのどこに含まれているか分からない場合は、ctrl + Fで検索をかけてみてください。重いのでブラウザ落ち注意。

 
使用テキスト: Beal, Joan. English in Modern Times 1700-1945. London: Arnold, 2004.


@自分が以前に述べたこと/これから述べることに言及する

ページの先頭に戻る

as we have seen in「〜ですでに見たように」(5.16 YA 類 7.4 NO)p.35 -9
メモ:ページ数の表記は→ p.118 2 as we have seen (above, p.112)
  Whilst there was an established tradition of bilingual dictionaries in the sixteenth century,... the need for a monolingual English dictionary arose towards the end of this century, when, as we have seen in Section 2.1, there was a large influx of learned vocabulary, mostly adapted from Latin.

as we noted in...「〜で見たように」(7.11 YA) p.22 17
  As we noted in Section 2.1, the apparent decline in lexical innovation towards the end of the nineteenth century is...

as we shall see in「〜で見るように」(7.11 KA) p.8 -2
  Eighteenth-century travellers such as Defoe remarked on the dialect of outlandish places such as Northumberland and Cornwall and, as we shall see in Chapter 2, travels further afield brought words into the vocabulary of English from....

of whom we shall have more to say in「〜でさらに述べることになるであろう〜」(5.16 YA) p.45 17
メモ:whomをwhichなどに変えて応用できそう
  Thomas Sheridan, the renowned elocutionist (of whom we shall have more to say in Chapter 7) wrote in 1756 that...

In..., I presented...「〜において、私は〜を紹介した」(5.16 KA) p.40 -5
  In Section 3.1, I presented the development of lexicography in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries as a progression towards a modern type of dictionary,...

It would be tempting at this point to move straight on to.... However...「この時点で〜についての議論に即座に移ることは魅力的に思えるであろう。しかしながら〜」(5.23 NO KI) p.49 -8
  It would be tempting at this point to move straight on to a consideration of the OED itself. However, Richardson's was not the only important English dictionary of the nineteenth century.

We have seen in the previous section that...「前のセクションでは〜ということを扱ってきた」(5.30 YA) p.57 3
  We have seen in the previous section that, both in Britain and in USA, English lexicography was far from dormant in the nineteenth century,...

this account of ... is intended to...「以上に述べた〜に関する記述は、〜するつもりのものであった」(5.30 KI) p.64 -5
メモ:否定形にすれば自分の論の範囲を制限できる。本文(以下例文)参照。
  This account of dictionary in the later modern period is not intended to be exhaustive.

concentrate largely on「〜に絞る」(6.6 YA) p.67 -19
メモ:例文では先行研究についての言及で使われているが、自分の論の場合にも使える。
 例文はAprovide a vast number of examples参照。

What I have tried to show here is that...「私がここで示そうとしたことは〜」(5.30 YA NO KI MA) p.64 -1
メモ:自らの論点を整理するのに便利。まとめる際の表現として。
  What I have tried to show here is that whilst ..., it is also clear that each dictionary is a product of its time,...

to take one example「例を挙げれば」(5.30 KI 類 10.24 NO) p.60 -5
【例示表現】
メモ:To take one example, let us look at... (p.131 11)
類似表現として to cite one example, to give an example, to mention a single example など。『英和活用大辞典』(研究社)より
  Why, to take one example, was there such unquestioning and comprehensive inclusion of heraldic terms...?

Examples of... include...「〜の例としては〜のようなものがある」(6.6 YA 類 7.11 YA) p.67 -11
【例示表現】
メモ:用例などを実際に挙げるときに使用できる。Examples from... includes... (p.27 14)
  Examples of corpora of Later Modern English usage include the Corpus of Nineteenth-Century English...; the Corpus of Public and Private Writing; and the Network of Eighteenth-Century English Texts from a range of genres,...

Whilst we shall only consider ... here, it should be noted that...「我々がここで検討するのは〜だけだが、〜ということには留意すべきである」(5.30 YA MA) p.58 8
メモ:自らの研究では扱わない論点に言及する際に使用できる
  Whilst we shall only considerthe New English Dictionary and ... here, it should be noted that OED is in a constant state of revision....

must be called into question「〜に疑義をさしはさまねばならない」(5.30 NE) p.59 -10
メモ:反証する際に有用。
  Another area in which the inclusiveness of the New English Dictionary must be called into question is in its treatment of scientific and technical vocabulary.

carry out further research on...「〜についてのさらなる調査を行う」(6.6 YA KI) p.67 -14
メモ:「調査を行う」類似表現としてconduct research into, do research on, make researches into, prosecute research onなど。『英和活用大辞典』(研究社)より
  His work is still the most obvious starring-point for anyone wishing to carry out further research on the history of a particular verbal construction.

I shall include... at appropriate points in this chapter.「この章の適切な箇所で〜を含めることにする」(6.6 YA) p.68 14
  I shall include insights both from grammars and from corpus studies at appropriate points in this chapter, but,...

I shall return to... in...「〜については〜で再度扱うことにする」(7.4 YA) p.116 -1
  These handbooks typically deal with 'mistakes' of pronunciation and usage of words as wellas of grammar, so I shall return to them in Chapter 7.

We shall begin with... and end with..., after dealing with....「まず〜で初めて、〜で終わるが、終わる前に〜を扱う」(6.6 YA KI) p.68 -16
メモ:論の展開を最初に述べる際に使用できる。
  Thus we shall begin with developments that mark the regulation,... and end with changes initiated in the early twentieth century, after dealing with changes that follow a steady trajectory through the later modern period.

I shall deal with... in an order which is primarily..., secondarily...「〜に関してはじめに〜、次に〜の順で扱う」(6.6 KI) p.68 20
  Instead, I shall deal with developments in an order which is primarily choronological, and secondarily thematic.

as the discussion above has demonstrated「上で述べた論が示すように」(6.13 NE NO) p.87 -2
メモ:議論をまとめる際に用いる
  However, as the discussion above has demonstrated, the increasing availability of corpora of Later Modern English means that...

Throughout this chapter, it has been evident that...「この章を通して、〜ということが明らかであった」(6.13 YA) p.88 4
メモ:まとめの表現として使用できる
  Throughout this chapter, it has been evident that, more than in any other period, changes in the morphology and syntax of Later Modern English are the subject of overt comment.

We shall discuss... further in..., but will now turn to...「〜については〜でさらに論じるが、ここでは〜について目を向けてみたい」(6.13 NO 類 7.11 NA) p.77 -1
メモ:論の展開に使える表現。We shall consider these points further in... (p.16 18)
  We shall discuss the grammarians further in Chapter 5, but will now turn to changes which were either initiated or gathered momentum in the later modern period, despite the resistance of grammarians.

Before examining..., in detail, I shall consider...「〜を詳細に調べる前に、〜について考えておこう」(6.20 YA) p.90 -16
  Before examining some of these grammars in detail, I shall consider why the demand for grammars of English arose at this time.

Before considering..., I should point out that...「〜について検討する前に〜を指摘しておきたい」(6.27 NO 類 7.11 YA) p.110 2
  Before considering specific prescriptions, I should point out that not all grammarians who adopted a classical model for parts of speech were blind to the differences between Latin and English.

To understand why... we first need to...「なぜ〜なのかを理解するためには我々はまず〜をする必要がある」(6.20 YA) p.93 9
  To understand why grammars of English became such a marketable commodity in the eighteenth century, we first need to look at changes in society during this period.

I have already noted above that...「すでに前に〜であることは述べた」(7.4 YA MA 類 NO 7.11 YA NA KA) p.115 14
メモ:ページ数の表記についても下記例を参照。p.118 13では We have already noted (above, p.100)
  I have already noted above (p.107) that with regard to the 'rules' for shall and will, Lowth shows awareness not only of current usage, but of language change.

I have attempted to demonstrate that...「〜ということを示そうとしてきた」(7.4 YA NE MA 7.11 YA KA) p.122 -3
メモ:まとめの際に使用できる。章の意義を改めて確認
  In this chapter, as in Chapter 3, I have attempted to demonstrate that grammars, like dictionaries, are each a product of the times in which they were written...

This chapter has attempted to...「この章では〜を試みた」(7.11 YA) p.33 -6
  This chapter has attempted to identify trends in lexical innovation between 1700 and 1945, and to explain these in terms of what we might term 'external' influences on the language,...

We can conclude that...「〜だと結論づけることができる」(7.4 MA 類 7.11 YA KI) p.113 -10
メモ:from the above discussion, we can conclude that... (p.33 -18)「以上の議論から、〜だと結論づけることができる」
  We can conclude that, whilst..., this did not lead to the prescription of unnatural rules.

Chapter 1 sets out...「1章では〜を提示する」(7.11 YA) p.xiii -14
  Chapter 1 sets out the 'extra-linguistic contexts' in which the changes and developments at various linguistic levels are situated.

I hope to show that...「私は〜ということを示したい」(7.11 YA) p.xiv 7
  In concluding with an overview of extraterritorial varieties, I hope to show that, by the end of the later modern period,..., the English language is no longer 'owned' by the English.

I intend to demonstrate that...「私は〜ということを示すつもりでいる」(7.11 YA KA NO) p.1 7
メモ:章の意義を示したい時に
  In this chapter, I intend to demonstrate that the period covered is one in which the characteristics of both 'Modern' English and the modern world evolve.

The first thing to bear in mind is...「まず始めに心に留めておくべきことは〜」(7.11 YA NA) p.14 12
  The first thing to bear in mind is the source of the data on which Figure 2.1 is based.

What must be borne in mind is that...「注意しておかなければならないのは〜」(7.11 YA NE MA) p.34 6
  What must be borne in mind is that the OED online is a 'work in progress',...

In the next chapter, we will look at...「次の章では、〜を扱う」(7.11 YA) p.34 -2
  In the next chapter, we will look at the dictionaries themselves, and the development of lexicography in the later modern period.


A先行研究に言及する、まとめる

ページの先頭に戻る

provide a table「表を提示する」(5.16 KA) p. 36 25
  Starnes and Noyes (1991:17) provide a table comparing entries from these three works, which...

provide an explanation「〜の説明をする」(5.23 MA) p.47 7
  Richardson thus provides an explanation which turn out to be erroneous.

provide a snapshot of...「〜の概観を示している」(7.11 YA MA) p.29 6
  This examination of the CED's list of first citations for 1835 thus provide a snapshot of trends in lexical innovation in the early to mid-nineteenth century.

provide a much fuller picture of...「〜のよりはっきりした全体像を示している」(7.11 YA NE MA 類 7.11 YA NE MA) p.29 -14
メモ:provide us with a much fuller and more reliable picture than...「〜よりもずっとより明確かつ信頼性の有る全体像を提示してくれる」(p.34 1)
  ..., it provides a much fuller picture of lexical innovation in more recent times than the SOED or the CED could.
  The latter provide us with a much fuller and more reliable picture than does the former,...

provide a vast number of examples「数多くの例を示している」(6.6 YA) p.67 -19
例示表現
メモ:下記例文は重要な参考文献を紹介するときの手本となりうる文である。
  Visser's (1963-73) volumes on historical syntax concentrate largely on (@concentrate largely on参照)the verb phrase, but provide a vast number of examples from all periods right up to(Fright up to参照)the mid twentieth century.

provide a cross-section of...「〜の典型例を示す」(6.6 YA) p.67 -5
例示表現
メモ:cross-section: a typical or representative sample (OALD)
  ..., thus providing a cross-section of of writers similar to the samples of speakers selected for synchronic socio-linguistic studies.

An example of this can be found in...「以上のことの例は〜で見つかる」(7.11 YA) p.4 -14
例示表現
An example of this can be found in the Observer Magazine, 14 April 2002.

provide ample evidence for...「〜に関する豊富な証拠を提示している」(7.11 YA) p.xi -8
  The latter event provide ample evidence for the transformation of this particular Cinderella,...

This brief examination of... has already provided a good deal of information about...「〜を簡単に調べただけでも〜に関する多くの情報を知ることが出来た」(7.11 YA) p.16 15
  This brief examination of the entry for one year has already provided a good deal of information about such lexical innovation as did occur in the mid eighteenth-century 'trough', and...

see ... for further discussion of this「〜に関してさらに詳しい議論は〜を見よ」(5.16 NA NO 7.11 YA KA)p.35 -4
  (see Jones, 1953; Blank, 1996 for further discussion of this

see ... for a fuller discussion of ...「〜に関してより完全な議論は〜を見よ」(5.23 KI MA 類 7.11 YA NO) p.52 -5
  (see Beal, 2002 for a fuller discussion of eighteenth-century ideas on spelling reform).

put forward the view that「〜という説を唱える」(5.16 YA)p.40 1
  Both Starnes and Noyes (1991) and Osselton (1983) put forward the view that the middle of the eighteenth century sees a new departure in lexicography,....

summing up their account of「〜に関する彼らの記述を要約すると」(5.16 YA KA NE)p.40 4
  Summing up their account of dictionaries before Johnson, Starnes and Noyes come to the following conclusions:

as Osselton points out, 「Osseltonが指摘しているように」(5.16 YA)p.40 -1
  However, as Osselton points out, this was largely because each lexicographer added some new selling-point to the word lists taken from his predecessors, rather than any conscious attempt to redefine the genre.

in Osselton's terms「Osseltonの言葉を借りれば」(5.16 YA)p.41 -8
  It is clear from Marin's preface that ...:in Osselton's terms, Martin certainly did sit down and think 'What is a dictionary?'

to a much greater extent than any...「どの〜よりもずっと大きな程度に」(5.23 YA) p.56 9
メモ:先行研究への言及の際に応用できる
  To a much greater extent than any dictionary before it, the Century Dictionary is, like the later OED, a dictionary on historical principle, in which....

much space has been devoted to...「〜に多くのページを割かれてきた」(5.23 YA) p.56 10
メモ:先行研究における特定のテーマの扱いについて述べる際などに使用できる
  Whitney writes that 'much space has been devoted to the special terms of the various sciences,... and much care has been bestowed upon their treatment.'

Here, Richardson is refering to...「ここでRichardsonが言及していることは〜」(5.23 NO MA) p.48 10
メモ:文献の特定の部分を指摘した後、さらに細かい説明を加えるときの表現
  In the last section of his preface, he 'congratulates himself upon...'(1835: 60)/ Here, Richardson is refering to the global spread of English as the language of the Empire:

receive thorough/patchy treatment「徹底した/部分的な扱いを受ける」(5.30 YA NO)
  However, as Brewer (2000) points out, the works from which... tend to be canonical, and certain authors receive far more thorough treatment than others.

Early studies of... suggest that...「〜についての初期の研究は〜ということを示す」(6.6 YA) p.72 11
  Early studies of the development of auxiliary do such as Engblom (1938) and.... suggest that the NICE properties emerged in the course of the middle and early modern periods and....

Under this heading, he discuses four major categories:「この項目の中で彼が論じている4つの主要なカテゴリーは〜」(6.13 YA)
メモ:先行研究の概要を説明する際に応用できそう
  The term 'group-verb' is used by Denison to denote 'a multi-word lexical item with verbal function'(1998:221). Under this heading, he discusses four major categories: intransitive phrasal verbs, such as eat out, wise up; transitive phrasal verbs, such as clean (object) out; mess (object) up; prepositional verbs, such as....

devote only five pages to...「〜にたったの5ページしか割いていない」(6.20 YA) p.89 4
  Bourcier, for instance, devotes only five pages (204-8) to this period, under the heading 'Post-Restroration social and interlectual attitudes'.

what was for a long time the most influential work on...「長きに渡って最も影響力のあり続けた〜についての研究」(6.20 YA) p.89 -12
メモ:古典的な名著に言及する際に使える
  All of these works take their lead from what was for a long time the most influential work on ieghteenth-century grammars and attitudes to language, S. A. Leonard's (1929) The Doctrine of Correctness in English Usage 1700-1800.

What emerges from these studies is that...「これらの研究から明らかなことは〜」(6.20 YA KI) p.90 5
  What emerges from these studies is that eighteenth-century grammarians had a range of motives for writing their grammars, and...

go on to suggest that...「〜という提案を続けている」(6.27 YA) p.104 6
  Buchanan goes on to suggest that 'in every Boading-School where there are young Ladies of Rank, proper Masters should attend...

betray a very negative view of...「〜に関するかなり否定的な見方を示している」(6.27 YA) p.105 -10
メモ:ここでは動詞としてbetrayが使用されているが、他にはどんな動詞が使えるのか確認しておきたい。
  ...: terms such as ignorant, unwilling and unaware betray a very negative view of eighteenth-century grammars, which is typical of most twentieth-century linguists.

take the view that...「〜という見方をしている」(7.4 YA) p.120 -16
  Curme and Kurath,..., take the view that the history of English is one of progress towards the 'better' state it is in by the twentieth century.

Perhaps the most important point Tieken makes is to...「おそらくTiekenが示す最も重要な主張は〜である」(6.27 YA KI) p.106 19
メモ:make one's[a] point 言い分を立証する、考えを述べる、主張の正しいことを示す(ジーニアス英和大辞典)
  Perhaps the most important point Tieken makes is to challenge the received view of Lowth as subjective.

Alford continues in this vein for another... pages「Alfordは同様の趣旨のことをさらに〜ページ続けて述べている」(7.4 YA) p.118 -17
  Alford continues in this vein for another four pages, ignorant of the fact that spellings such as humor were used by English writers...

Mention has been made here and there of...「〜に関する言及はあちこちでなされていきた」(7.4 YA) p.122 9
メモ:1930年の英文だが、特に問題ないであろう
  Mention has been made here and there of the 'superstition' against ending clause or sentence with a preposition;...

... have been called into question by...「〜によって問題視されてきた」(7.11 YA) p.22 5
  The figures from the early modern period have been called into question by Schafer (1980) and Mackie (1936).


B婉曲的に(断定を避けて、譲歩しながら)論を述べる

ページの先頭に戻る

it is probably fair to say that「〜と言っても良いかもしれない」(5.16 YA NA 類 7.11 YA)p.41 16
メモ:Whilst it might fair to say that... p.12 21
  It is probably fair to say that, after Johnson, readers expected a dictionary to provide...

it would be hard to deny that「〜ということを否定することはなかなかできないかもしれない」(5.16 YA) p.43 -1
  When we..., we are on more solid ground, for it would be hard to deny that Johnson's dictionary was the first that 'assumed an authoritarian or normative function.'

Of course, it could be argued that..., but「もちろん〜ということを議論できるが、しかし〜」(5.30 YA) p.64 8
  Of course, it could be argued that there was less knowledge of the 'native languages' and..., but the contrasting treatment of words such as these would have reinforced the readers' sense of the superiority of European languages.

That said, it cannot be denied that...「それでもやはり、〜ということは否定できない」(6.20 YA) p.90 10
メモ:That said「私の行ったことを認めるけれど」が原義。having said that
  That said, it cannot be denied that the eighteenth century,..., sees an unprecedented number of grammars published.

Whilst it is perfectly valid to..., it cannot be denied that...「〜ということが完全に妥当である一方、〜であることも否めない」(6.20 KI) p.95 5
  Whilst it is perfectly valid to see eightennth- and ninetheenth-century grammars both as necessary agents of..., it cannot be denied that many of the authors of these works were politically and/or ideologically motivated.

It would be a mistake to argue that...「〜であると主張することは間違いであろう」(6.20 KI) p.101 12
  ..., so it would be a mistake to argue that any set of political circumstances created the market for grammars in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

It might be wiser to...「〜した方がより懸命であろう」(6.20 KI MA) p.101 14
  It might be wiser to agree with Crowley that 'language becomes a crucial focus of tension and debate at critical historical moments,..."

Whilst this may be the case,「以上のことも事実である一方」(6.27 YA) p.104 -8
  Whilst this may be the case, one effect of this emphasis on an English-based curriculum for girls, and for those boys destined to a life in trade or...

Whilst,... this does not necessarily mean that...「〜である一方、このことは必ずしも〜ということを意味しない」(6.27 YA) p.107 12
メモ:大いに活用できそうな譲歩表現
  Whilst,...,ythese grammarians were normative in the sense that they deliberately set out to codify, or 'ascertain', the language, this does not necessarily mean that the basis of their rules was always arbitrary or subjective.

It would be a mistake to over-emphasize...「〜を強調しすぎるのは誤りであろう」(7.4 YA) p.119 -16
メモ:ついでながらemphasizeはthat節をとることができるので、over-emphasizeも同様であろう。
  However, it would be a mistake to over-emphasize this polarity:...

it would be foolish to suggest that...「〜ということを提案するのは馬鹿げているであろう」(7.11 YA) p.2 4
  Of course, it would be foolish to suggest that any such period could be homogeneous or that the boundaries would not be fuzzy.

Whilst such a haphazaed sample cannot be seen as in any way statistically significant,「そのようなでたらめな実例は決して統計的に意味のあるものとはみなされないだろうが」(7.11 YA NE MA) p.22 -13
  Whilst such a haphazard sample cannot be seen as in any way statistically significant, two out of 12, or 17 per cent, is a very small proportion.


C重要な点や盲点を強調したい

ページの先頭に戻る

more importantly,「さらに重要なのが」(5.16 YA)p.38 -1
  More importantly, perhaps, he produced a dictionary which was more than just an expository of hard words or a guide to spelling,...

The keywords here are「ここでのキーワードは」(5.16 KA) p.44 20
  The keywords here are fixed and ascertained:

it is certainly the case that...「〜ということも確かに事実である」(5.30 YA) p.61 6
  Of course, the heraldic terms were included because they were ancient: bordure has a first citation from 1460 and bendlet from 1575, but it is certainly the case that Craigie and Onions, in the 1933 supplement, needed to pay much more attention to the scientific vocabulary that had been....

draw our attention to...「〜に我々の注意を喚起する」(5.30 YA MA) p.62 21
  Mugglestone draws our attention to the 'armoury of status labels used throughout the dictionary...

there is more than an element of truth in the suggestion that...「〜という提案にはいくぶんの真理がある」(6.6 YA) p.69 5
メモ:仮説や主張の重要性に言及する際に使用できる。類似表現として There may be some/a certain element of truth in this view., It contains an element of truth.など。『英和活用大辞典』より。
  ..., there is more than an element of truth in the suggestion that sixteenth-century variants had,..., often been relegated to non-standard usage, or...

It is noticeable that...「明白なことは〜」(6.13 YA) p.78 7
  This construction was not new, but it is noticeable that in Early Modern English it is not always used where it would be today.

What is noticeable about... is that...「〜に関して重要なことは〜」(7.11 YA NA 類 7.11 YA MA) p.19 22
メモ:What is noticeable here is that..., What is notable about... is...
  What is noticeable about these wrods,..., is that they have, for the most part, not been anglicized.

It is worth noting that...「注目するに値することは〜」(6.13 YA 7.11 YA) p.81 18
  It is worth noting that all three of these early examples come from letters, the most informal of written mediums.

What is evident from... is that...「〜から明らかなことは〜」(7.11 YA) p.20 -1
メモ:fromの目的語として表やデータ、先行研究などが入る、表やグラフ等に言及する際に応用できる
  What is evident from Figure 2.3 is that one year in this 'trough' bucks the trend:...

What is apparent here is that...「明らかなことは〜」(7.11 YA) p.30 1
  What is apparent here is that lexical innovation continues at a healthy level through out the first half of the twentieth century,...

It is clear from... that...「〜から〜ということが明らかである」(7.11 YA) p.31 6
メモ:fromの目的語として表やデータ、先行研究などが入る
  ..., but it is clear from Figure 2.5 that the war did not stimulate higher levels of lexical innovation.

press home the point「まさにその点をだめ押ししている」(6.20 NE MA) p.99 -2
メモ:home「まともに、狙ったところへ」
  Here, Cobbett presses home the point made in The Political Register that they had no right to condemn the petitioners on the grounds of language or....

We must be careful not to put too... an interpretation on...「〜についてあまり〜な解釈をしないよう注意しなければならない」(6.27 NO)
メモ:先行研究を引くとき、紛らわしい文章などがある際に読者の注意を促す
  We must be careful not to put too feminist an interpretation on Buchanan's remarks:...

It is also worth pointing out that...「〜ということも指摘するに値する」(6.27 YA) p.107 6
  It is also worth pointing out that both Priestley and Lowth here acknowledge the existence of linguistic change:...

Nevertheless, it must be admitted that...「それでもやはり〜ということは認めなければならない」(6.27 YA) p.110 11
  Nevertheless, it must be admitted that some of the shibboleths propagated by eighteenth-century grammarians have their basis in Latin.

What is striking about... is that...「〜に関して目立つ点は〜ということである」(6.27 YA 7.4 MA) p.112 -15
  What is striking about both these proscriptions,... is that they continue to be the target of critics precisely because...

Most importantly for our purposes,「我々の目的にとって最も重要なことには〜」(7.11 YA) p.16 20
  Most importantly for our purposes, they acknoe\wledge that 'the vocabulalry of the twentieth century is less systematically represented than that of the preceding periods' (1970: xi).

It is therefore somewhat surprising to find...「したがって幾分〜を見つけることは驚くべきことである」(7.11 YA) p.19 -7
  It is therefore somewhat surprising to find critics of Latinate borrowings in this period.


D問題の提示

ページの先頭に戻る

this leads us to ask why「以上のことを考えると、なぜ〜なのかという疑問が浮かぶ」(5.16 YA)p.39 -4
  This leads us to ask why Johnson's dictionary has been viewed by the ignorant as the 'first' dictionary of English, and....

put a problem「問題を提起する」(5.30 KA) p.60 19
メモ:類似表現として pose / present / raise a problemなど。『英和活用大辞典』より. 本文では先行研究についての言及。
  Murray put the problem to the audience at his presidential address:

cast considerable doubt on...「〜に大いに疑問を投げかける」(7.4 YA NE NO) p.112 -4
  The discussion in Section 5.2.2 casts considerable doubt on Ryden's accusation that eighteenth-century grammarians based their rules on Latin, but...

The questions to be addressed in this chapter are:「この章で扱う問題は以下のものである」(7.11 YA KA NO) p.2 18
メモ:章構成を読者にも分かりやすく伝えることが大事
  The questions to be addressed in this chapter are: what are the social, political and intellectual 'movements' which..., and how do these affect the development of 'Later Modern English'?


Eデータや数字に言及する

ページの先頭に戻る

together with A, B contributes C per cent of D「Aと合わせるとBの占める割合はDのうちのCパーセントになる」(5.16 YA) p.43 -14
メモ:論文で表やグラフに言及する際に使用できる表現
  Together with Bacon, Pope and the Bible, these authors contribute 50 per cent of all Johnson's illustrative quotations.

If we subtract A from B, we would be left with C「BからAを引くと、Cが残る」(7.11 YA KI) p.30 -9
メモ:引き算の表現
  If we subtract these 103 citations from the total for 1909, we would be left with 423,...

..., which taken together account for more than...「両方合わせて〜を占める」(7.11 YA NE MA 類 7.11 MA) p.25 -9
メモ:taken togetherをこのように経済的に使いたい。p.27 -6に類似表現
  White's view that English speakers tended to 'fly readily to the Latin tongue or to the Greek' is to a certain extent borne out here by the predominance of those two classical languages, which taken together account for more than two-thirds of the words cited for this year in the CED.
  ..., French and eponyms together account for the vast majority of first citations recorded for the year 1835 in the CED.

account for the greatest number of...「〜のうちでもっとも多い」(5.23 YA) p.56 9
メモ:数値に言及する際に使用できる
  However, it is the technical terms which account for the greatest number of innovations introduced in The Century Dictionary.

account for A percent and B percent of the total respectively「それぞれ全体のAパーセントとBパーセントを占めている」(7.11 NA) p.21 6
  Of these 298 words, 135 are marked in the CED as of Latin origin and 36 of Greek origin, accounting for 45 per cent and 11 per cent of the total respectively.

amount to「総計〜になる」(5.30 NE 類6.27 YA NO) p.58 3
メモ:用例数を上げる際に引用。amount toは数に関して中立的な表現
  The complete dictionary amounted to 15,487 pages containing 414,825 entries (Johnson had 39,000).

with... reaching its peak in...「〜は〜に最も多く見られるようになったが」(6.6 YA KI) p.72 -10
  However, by the early modern period, it had become common in prose too, with this usage reaching its peak in the middle of the sixteenth century.

show a gradual decline in the percentage of...「〜の割合については、ゆるやかな下降曲線を描いている」(6.6 YA KI) p.72 -9
メモ:p.76 -5 a remarkable declineという表現が見られる
  Elegard (1953; 162) shows a gradual decline in the percentage of do forms in affirmative declarative sentences from the mid-sixteenth century to the early eighteenth century, when it comes close to zero.

... has led to the proliferation of...「〜が〜の増加につながった」(7.11 NE) p.25 -2
  Indeed, the very formulaic nature of these words has led to the proliferation of the suffix -itis.

show a steep rise「急激な増加を示す」(6.6 KI 類 7.11 YA NE MA) p.74 11
メモ:appear to show a steep decline (p.29 12)
  Negative declaratives lag behind a little rising from zero to over 80 per cen, but not showing a steep rise until the second half of the seventeenth century.

grew dramatically in the 1830s and 1840s and rose steadily in...「〜は1830年代と1840年代に劇的に増加し、〜を着実に増した」(7.11 NO) p.8 12
メモ:何かの成長を述べる表現。年代の表し方(theをつける)にも注意したい。
  The rail network in Britain grew dramatically in the 1830s and 1840s and rose steadily in importance, only to decline after World War II,...

The further decline of... in... is indicated by the fact that...「〜において〜がさらに減少していることは、〜という事実によって示される」(6.13 YA) p.86 -16
  The further decline of subjunctive usage in the twentieth century is indicated by the fact that,... , examples cited by Curme and Kurath(1931;427) as typical of 'loose colloquial speech' would be acceptable in any style or register...

maintain a relatively high frequency of...「比較的高い頻度を保持している」(6.13 YA) p.86 18
  Denson (1998: 300) demonstrates that if-less conditional clauses such as... maintain a relatively high frequency of usage until 1800, after which...

The overall usage of... doubles, but the use in... quadruples.「全体の〜の用法は倍になったが、〜における使用は4倍になった」(6.13 YA NO) p.78 -8
メモ:倍数表現 double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, sextuple, seqtuple, octuple, nonuple, decuple(10倍), centuple(100倍)*threefold, fourfold... tenfoldの方が普通(ジーニアス英和大辞典)
  Strang goes on to state that,... , the overall usage of be + -ing forms doubles, but the use in non-subordinate clause almost quadruples.

This inclease slows down in... and accelerates in...「この増加は〜には緩慢になるが、〜には急激になる」(6.13 NE) p.78 -16
メモ:用例数の図やグラフを説明する際に使える
  In fact, this inclease slows down in the eighteenth century, and accelerates in the nineteenth:

We might expect to see a steady growth in...「〜の安定した増加が予想されるであろう」(7.11 NA) p.14 5
  We might expect to see a steady growth in the vocabulary of English throughout this period,...

identify a total of...「全部で〜としている」(6.27 YA) p.108 18
  Michael identifies a total of 25 grammars making up what he calls a 'movement of reform' in the eighteen century.

They are not great in number.「それらの数は多くはない」(7.11 YA) p.33 -16
  ...:although the loan-words from allies and enemies alike are noticed during and after these conflicts, they are not great in number.

We can see that...「我々は〜ということを見て取ることができる」(7.11 YA) p.15 5
  We can see that there are only 38 first citations from this year,...

This indicates that...「このことは〜ということを示している」(7.11 YA) p.30 -7
  This indicates that the 'peaks' are rather artificial, since these words must have been attested elsewhere earlier than 1909,...

Another factor which may have contributed to this deceleration is...「この減少傾向を助長したと思われるもう1つの要因は〜」(7.11 YA) p.17 9
  Another factor which may have contributed to this deceleration is the linguistic consercatism of this period.

... can be explained by the fact that...「〜は〜という事実によって説明できる」(7.11 YA) p.21 3
  This 'blip' can be explained by the fact that the supplement to Chambers' Cyclopaedia was published in this year.

... is entirely due to the fact that...「〜ということは〜という事実が全くの原因である」(7.11 YA NE) p.22 18
  As we noted in Section 2.1, the apparent decline in lexical innovation towards the end of the nineteenth century is entirely due to the fact that the OED was being composed during this period.

... would certainly explain...「〜は〜の説明となるであろう」(7.11 YA) p.22 -10
  Such under-representation of lexical innovation from the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would certainly explain the sharp down-turn shown in Figure 2.1


Fそのほか、役に立ちそうな表現

ページの先頭に戻る

providing(分詞構文)「〜を提示しながら」(5.16 YA) p.35 -5
  Baily made greater advances in etymology than any of his predecessors, providing the immediate and ultimate sources of words.

the need for... arose towards「〜にかけて〜の必要性が高まった」(5.16 KA) p.35 11
  ..., the need for a monolingual English dictionary arose towards the end of this century, when...

the pressing need is for...「〜が差し迫って必要なものである」(5.16 NA NO) p.37 1
In the early seventeenth century, the pressing need was for a guide to the new Latinate vocabulary of literary English, especially....

represent a stage in「〜におけるある段階を示している」(5.16 KA NA) p.37 -2
  ..., his dictionary does represent a stage in the progression of English lexicography,...

this marked a move away from... towards「このことは〜から離れて〜に向かったことを示した」(5.16 KA) p.38 5
  This marked a move away from the 'hard words' tradition of the seventeenth century towards the concept of a dictionary as a record of the core vocabulary of English.

what marks... out as... is that....「〜を〜として目立たせたことは〜ということである」(5.16 NA NE) p.43 21
  What marks Johnson out as an innovetor is that he is the first English lexicographer to allow the reader to deduce meanings from literary quotations.

be on more solid ground「より確かな根拠に立脚している」(5.16 NA NO) p.43 -2
  When we come to Osselton's fourth characteristic of dictionaries produced between 1750 and 1850, we are on more solid ground, for it would be hard to deny that....

from... onwards「〜以降ずっと」 (5.23 YA) p.47 -2
メモ:"from Old English onwards"などのように通時的視点に言及する際に便利な表現
  Byron... starts to be quoted in the Dictionary from the letter F onwards.

right up to「〜に至るまで」(6.6 YA) p.67 -19
 例文はA
provide a vast number of examples参照。

... deserve a place in...「〜における位置づけをなされるに足る」(5.23 YA) p.49 -12
  Richiardson's dictionary deserves a place in the history of English lexicography.

equal, if not superior, to...「〜に勝るとも劣らぬ」(5.23 YA) p.52 -19
  Webster's mission was to establish a model of American English equal, if not superior, to that of British English.

obtain a more correct knowledge of...「〜に関するより正確な情報を得る」(5.23 YA) p.53 17
メモ:自らの研究や調査の目的を述べる際などに使用できる
  ..., despite his insistence that he has compared words in 20 languages 'to obtain a more correct knowledge of the primary sense of original words.'

attract little interest from scholars「学者の関心をあまり引いていない」(6.6 YA) p.66 2
  Until very recently, the topic of syntactic change in the later modern period attract little interest from scholars.

... have been the subject of a number of studies, including...「例えば〜に見られるように、多くの研究の対象となってきた」(6.6 YA) p.69 -14
  The sociolinguistic,... have been the subject of a number of studies, including Barber(1981), Brown and Gilman(1960, 1989) and Mulholland(1967).

A few topics have recived, and continue to receive, a good deal of scholarly attention, most notably...「多くの学者の関心をひきつけてきたテーマがいくつかあるが、その中でも特に目立っているのが〜」(6.6 YA) p.66 13
メモ:文全体の構成もさることながら、interest from scholar(上掲)をscholarly attentionと言い換えている点にも注目したい
  A few topics have received, and continue to receive, a good deal of scholarly attention, most notably the increase through out the period in both the frequency of use and the functions of what we shall call(*下記参照)be + -ing forms.

what we shall call...「この論文で言うところの〜」(6.6 YA) p.66 15
  例文は上掲の文を参照。

It is a commonplace amongst... that...「〜は〜の間では常識である」(6.6 YA) p.68 -11
  It is a commonplace amongst historians of English that the flexibility and variability which... were to be subjected to regulation bythe grammarians of the eighteenth century.

The general impression gained from a survey of... is that...「〜の調査結果から得られる全体的な印象は〜といったところである」(6.6 YA) p.68 -7
  The general impression gained from a survey of the grammar of Shakespeare is that....

A comparison of... shows...「〜を比較することで〜ということが分かる」(6.6 YA) p.70 19
  A comparison of twentieth century translation of the Bible shows this final loss of thee/thou;...

can yield interesting and useful results「興味深く役に立つ結果が出るだろう」(6.6 YA) p.75 3
メモ:形容詞にも注目したい
  ... a socio-historical approach to the study of syntactic change in Later Modern English can yield interesting and useful results.

Among these are...「そこに含まれるものは〜」(6.13 YA) p.84 12
ページの先頭に戻る

lay down「設定する」(5.16 YA)p.42 6
  Martin goes on to lay down the following order for the various definitions of a word:

see「<時代・場所が><事を>経験する、目撃する」(5.16 KA NE 類 NA) p.38 4
  The beginning of the eighteenth century saw this last stage of...

see A as B「AをBとみなす」(5.16 KA) p.41 7
  Osselton sees this century from 1750-1850 as the period in which the dictionary takes on its modern form.

rule out「除外する」(5.30 KI) p.60 -2
  Why... when scientific words far more likely to gain everyday importance were summarily ruled out?

steer a middle path between A and B「AとBの中間を行く」(7.4 NE NO) p.118 12
  Other works of this period steer a middle path between prescription and description.

testify to「証明となる」(7.11 NE MA) p.28 17
メモ:be a testimony to... (p.28 -9)もある
  Some of these are European languages which have been minor sources of innovation for centuries, whilst the presence of other, more 'exotic' languages testifies to the widening experience of English speakers as a result of exploration and colonization.

scrutinize A for B「BについてAを綿密に調べる」(7.11 NE) p.31 -15
  Zandvoort's assistants scrutinized copies of weekly and daily newspapers printed between 1938 and 1948 for likely neologisms,...

level off「(上がった後)横ばいになる」(7.11 NO) p.6 -5
  After 1945 this movement from rural to urban areas levelled off,...

take on board A「Aを受け入れる」(10.17 NO) p.126 23
  If we take on board the assumption behind the 'apparent time' methodology...



ページの先頭に戻る